Low FODMAP Food List: What Can You Eat on a Low FODMAP Diet?

If you’ve been advised to follow a FODMAP elimination diet, a low FODMAP food list can make your life much easier.

Below, we’ve organized a comprehensive list of both foods to enjoy and foods to avoid when following a low FODMAP diet.

What are FODMAPs?

What are FODMAPs?

FODMAPs stands for fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols.

These are all types of carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine. As a result, they travel to the large intestine mostly intact, where they’re fermented by gut bacteria.

The process of fermentation releases hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane gases, which cause uncomfortable digestive symptoms in people who don’t tolerate FODMAPs well. Symptoms include (1, 2):

A FODMAP elimination diet is a short-term plan to identify carbohydrates that trigger digestive symptoms. The elimination diet strictly limits foods that are high in FODMAPs for a couple of weeks, and then gradually reintroduces them to determine which foods cause your symptoms.

This approach can be helpful for those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and celiac disease (3, 4).

The trick is to know which foods to avoid. The remainder of this article will look at some of the best and worst foods for people with FODMAP intolerance, and provide a low FODMAP food list to help you get started.

Summary: FODMAPs is an acronym used to describe certain carbohydrates that aren’t absorbed well in the small intestine. These carbs travel largely intact to the large intestine, where they’re fermented by gut bacteria. The process of fermentation creates digestive gases, which can cause symptoms like bloating, gas, stomach pain, constipation and diarrhea.

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FODMAPs in Foods

FODMAPs in FoodsThis low FODMAP food list is organized by food category and includes best and worst choices.

When it comes to FODMAPs, the dose makes the poison. High FODMAP foods should be avoided altogether until you know which types of FODMAPs bother you. Recommended serving sizes are listed for foods that are moderate in FODMAPs.

Keep in mind that even low FODMAP foods can cause you problems if you eat them in large quantities. This is called FODMAP stacking. For example, soy sauce is technically considered a low FODMAP condiment, but it may cause symptoms if you eat more than two tablespoons of it. This is especially true when you serve it with other high FODMAP foods.

Vegetables

Great news for veggie lovers: Your low FODMAP food list includes lots of different vegetables!

Low FODMAP Vegetables to Enjoy:

  • Alfalfa
  • Arugula (rocket)
  • Asian & collard greens
  • Green beans
  • Bean sprouts
  • Bell peppers (capsicum)
  • Broccoli
  • Cabbage
  • Carrots
  • Celery
  • Celery root (celeriac)
  • Chard (silverbeet)
  • Chili (red or green)
  • Cucumbers
  • Edamame
  • Eggplant (aubergine)
  • Endive
  • Fennel (bulb and leaves)
  • Ginger and galangal
  • Kale
  • Lettuce (all types)
  • Canned mushrooms
  • Shimeji mushrooms
  • Oyster mushrooms
  • Okra
  • Potato
  • Pumpkin/Squash (Japanese)
  • Radish
  • Rhubarb
  • Scallion/Spring Onion (green parts only)
  • Seaweed/Nori
  • Spinach (baby or English)
  • Tomatoes
  • Turnip
  • Rutabaga
  • Water chestnut
  • Yam
  • Zucchini (courgette)

Vegetables to Limit on a Low FODMAP Diet:

  • Beetroot (½ cup)
  • Brussels sprouts (2 large or 4 small sprouts)
  • Corn (½ cob)
  • Green or black olives (15 small)
  • Sweet potato (½ potato)
  • Butternut squash (½ cup)
  • Snow peas (5 pods)
  • Spaghetti squash (1 cup)

High FODMAP Vegetables to Avoid:

  • Asparagus
  • Artichoke
  • Cauliflower
  • Garlic
  • Leek (white parts; green portions are okay!)
  • Onions
  • Portobello mushrooms
  • Button mushrooms
  • Shiitake mushrooms
  • Peas
  • Scallions/Spring Onions (white parts; green portions are okay!)

Fruits

You can still enjoy lots of fruits on a low FODMAP diet, as long as you avoid ones that are high in oligosaccharides, fructose and polyols.

Low FODMAP Fruits to Enjoy:

  • Blueberries
  • Grapes
  • Lemons
  • Limes
  • Mandarins
  • Oranges
  • Passion fruit
  • Raspberries
  • Strawberries

Fruits to Limit on a Low FODMAP Diet:

  • Bananas (firm/green only, 1 medium)
  • Cantaloupe (½ cup)
  • Coconut (dessicated, ½ cup)
  • Honeydew melon (½ cup)
  • Kiwi fruit (2 small)
  • Pineapple (1 cup)
  • Avocado (very small quantities only)

High FODMAP Fruits to Avoid:

  • Apples
  • Apricots
  • Ripe bananas
  • Blackberries
  • Cherries
  • Grapefruit
  • Mango
  • Nectarines
  • Peaches
  • Pears
  • Plums
  • Raisins and sultanas
  • Watermelon

Cereals, Grains, Flour and Other Ingredients

Many grains and grain-based products are high in oligosaccharides and should be avoided on a low FODMAP diet.

Be sure to watch for high FODMAP ingredients in cereals, baked goods, granolas and other grain products (even those made with low FODMAP flours). Honey, agave nectar, high fructose corn syrup, dried fruit and sweeteners are common offenders.

Low FODMAP Cereals, Grains, Flours and Other Ingredients to Enjoy:

  • Amaranth
  • Arrowroot
  • Gluten-free bread
  • True sourdough bread (no yeast)
  • Buckwheat flour
  • Gluten-free cereal (no honey or dried fruit)
  • Corn flakes
  • Corn/Maize flour
  • Corn tortillas
  • Muesli (no fruit)
  • Rice Krispies
  • Spirulina
  • Tapioca flour
  • Teff
  • Wheatgrass powder

Cereals, Grains, Flours and Other Ingredients to Limit on a Low FODMAP Diet:

  • Cacao powder (2 teaspoons / 4.5 grams)
  • Oats, rolled (½ cup)

High FODMAP Cereals, Grains, Flours and Other Ingredients to Avoid:

  • Barley
  • Besan flour
  • Cereal, muesli or granola with wheat, honey or dried fruit
  • Chickpea flour
  • Coconut flour
  • Rye flour
  • Soy flour
  • Wheat flour
  • All foods made with high FODMAP flours (cakes, cookies, biscuits, breads, muffins, etc.)

Pasta, Rice, and Noodles

There is no need to give up noodles and rice on a low FODMAP diet, as there are quite a few safe options!

Low FODMAP Pasta, Rice and Noodles to Enjoy:

  • Konjac noodles
  • Rice noodles
  • Gluten-free pasta
  • Polenta
  • Quinoa
  • Rice (all types except rice pilaf)
  • Rice noodles

High FODMAP Pasta, Rice and Noodles to Avoid:

  • Couscous
  • Gnocchi
  • Pasta
  • Egg noodles
  • Udon noodles
  • Ramen noodles
  • Wheat noodles
  • Semolina noodles
  • Flavored, packaged rice, quinoa, pasta, and noodles with high FODMAP ingredients

Dairy and Dairy Alternatives

Lactose is a naturally occurring sugar that’s found in milk and dairy products.

About 65% of humans can’t properly digest it and need to avoid lactose altogether.

Low FODMAP Dairy and Dairy Alternatives to Enjoy:

  • Cheese (all firm varieties)
  • Cottage cheese
  • Ricotta cheese
  • Lactose-free yogurt (plain)
  • Lactose-free milk
  • Almond milk
  • Hemp milk
  • Quinoa milk
  • Rice milk
  • Soy milk (made from protein)

High FODMAP Dairy and Dairy Alternatives to Avoid:

  • Cream cheese
  • Cow’s milk
  • Goat’s milk
  • Oat milk
  • Sheep’s milk
  • Soy milk made with soybeans
  • Canned coconut milk (you may be able to tolerate very small quantities)

Meat, Eggs, Legumes and Soy Protein

Aside from sausages and processed meats, most animal proteins are naturally low in FODMAPs.

Vegetarians have lots of options as well, but should watch out for certain soy proteins and beans.

Low FODMAP Meat, Eggs, Legumes and Soy Proteins to Enjoy:

  • Beef
  • Chicken
  • Lamb
  • Pork
  • Turkey
  • Fish (including smoked or gluten-free battered)
  • Cold cuts (check labels for high FODMAP ingredients first–like onion, garlic, honey, or high fructose corn syrup)
  • Eggs
  • Lentils, canned and rinsed
  • Lima and mung beans
  • Quorn
  • Tempeh
  • Tofu (firm)

High FODMAP Meat, Eggs, Legumes and Soy Proteins to Avoid:

  • Most sausages
  • Processed meats with high FODMAP ingredients
  • Baked beans
  • Black beans
  • Cannellini beans
  • Mixed beans
  • Tofu (silken)
  • Soybeans
  • Chickpeas (very small amounts of canned, rinsed chickpeas may be tolerated)

Nuts and Seeds

With a couple of exceptions, nuts and seeds are low FODMAP foods.

Nut and seed butters are fine as well, as long as they don’t contain high FODMAP sweeteners or other ingredients.

Low FODMAP Nuts and Seeds to Enjoy:

  • Almonds
  • Brazil nuts
  • Hazelnuts
  • Macadamia nuts
  • Peanuts
  • Pine nuts
  • Pecans
  • Walnuts
  • Chia seeds
  • Linseeds
  • Poppy seeds

High FODMAP Nuts and Seeds to Avoid:

  • Cashews
  • Pistachios

Sweeteners, Sauces and Condiments

Sweeteners, sauces and condiments can be tricky on a low FODMAP diet.

It’s best to eat these foods in small amounts or avoid them altogether if you don’t have access to an ingredients list.

Also, remember that garlic and onions are high FODMAP foods. While butter and oil are naturally low in FODMAPs, infused varieties may not be.

Low FODMAP Sweeteners, Sauces and Condiments to Enjoy:

  • Butter
  • BBQ sauce
  • Ketchup/Tomato sauce
  • Golden syrup
  • Maple syrup
  • Margarine
  • Mayonnaise
  • Mint sauce
  • Mint jelly
  • Miso paste
  • Mustard
  • Peanut butter
  • Sweeteners (Equal, Stevia and Splenda)
  • Shrimp paste
  • Soy, fish and oyster sauce
  • Sweet and sour sauce
  • Vanilla essence
  • Vegemite/Marmite
  • Apple cider vinegar
  • Malt vinegar
  • Balsamic vinegar
  • Red wine vinegar
  • Worcestershire sauce

High FODMAP Sweeteners, Sauces and Condiments to Avoid:

  • Agave
  • Curry paste
  • Gravy mix
  • High fructose corn syrup (HFCS)
  • Honey
  • Hummus
  • Inulin
  • Isomalt
  • Jam (real strawberry jam and marmalade are okay!)
  • Maltitol
  • Mannitol
  • Pasta sauces
  • Xylitol
  • Sorbitol
  • Tzatziki

Sweets and Snacks

You’ll also need to be careful with your sweets and snacks on a low FODMAP diet.

These foods may contain hidden flours, sweeteners, onion, garlic and other high FODMAP ingredients. Try out some of the options below, or choose from this list of 77 easy and tasty low FODMAP snacks instead.

Low FODMAP Sweets and Snacks to Enjoy:

  • Dark chocolate (85% cacao or more is ideal)
  • Corn chips
  • Cookies or biscuits made with low FODMAP flours
  • Jello
  • Potato chips/crisps (plain, salted)
  • Popcorn
  • Rice crackers, rice cakes crispbread

High FODMAP Sweets and Snacks to Avoid:

  • Milk chocolate
  • White chocolate
  • Muesli bars
  • Dried fruit
  • Chips or snacks with onion or garlic powder (vegetable powder usually has one or both of these!)

Drinks (Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic)

Plain water is usually your best drink option, whether you’re eliminating FODMAPs or not.

Sometimes, though, you want a little variety. Here are some of your best and worst drink choices.

Low FODMAP Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Drinks to Enjoy:

  • Beer (choose gluten-free if you have celiac disease)
  • Drinking chocolate (choose cocoa or cacao-based, but not carob)
  • Coffee (no milk)
  • Cranberry juice
  • Fresh orange juice
  • Lemon juice
  • Lime juice
  • Tomato juice
  • Gin
  • Vodka
  • Whiskey
  • Black tea
  • Green tea
  • Dandelion tea
  • Peppermint tea
  • Red wine
  • White wine
  • Champagne
  • Water

High FODMAP Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Drinks to Avoid:

  • Apple juice
  • Coconut water
  • Apple cider
  • Pear cider
  • Cocktails
  • Mango juice
  • Pear juice
  • Rum
  • Sodas with HFCS
  • Some herbal tea varieties
  • Dessert wines

Planning a Low FODMAP Diet

Ready to get started on a FODMAP elimination diet?

Here are some low FODMAP meal ideas:

Need a little more help? You might benefit from this 14-day Digestive Health Reboot.

 

About Kimberly Yawitz (Registered Dietitian Nutritionist)

Kim Yawitz is a registered dietitian and nutritionist in St. Louis, Missouri.

She currently works with sports nutrition and weight management clients for a private practice. Prior to that Kim worked as an inpatient clinical dietitian, developing nutrition care plans for patients with health concerns ranging from autoimmune disease to critical illness.

Learn more about her on the About page